Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended
Apr. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of these consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in these consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, those related to revenue recognition, allowance for doubtful accounts, goodwill and intangible assets, right-of-use operating leases, impairment of long-lived assets, accounting for income taxes, the valuation of stock-based awards, and ongoing legal matters. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and other market-specific or relevant factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates as there are changes in circumstances, facts and experience. Changes in estimates are recorded in the period in which they become known. Actual results may differ from those estimates or assumptions.
We account for acquisitions of entities that include inputs and processes and have the ability to create outputs as business combinations. We allocate the purchase price of the acquisition to the tangible assets acquired, liabilities assumed, and identifiable intangible assets acquired based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the purchase price over those fair values is recorded as goodwill. Acquisition-related expenses and restructuring costs are expensed as incurred. During the measurement period, we record adjustments to provisional amounts recorded for assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. After the measurement period, which could be up to one year after the transaction date, subsequent adjustments are recorded to the Company’s consolidated statements of operations.
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and on deposit and highly liquid investments in money market mutual funds, government sponsored enterprise obligations, treasury bills, commercial paper and other money market securities with remaining maturities at the date of purchase of 90 days or less. All cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates fair value. Restricted cash represents cash that is restricted as to withdrawal or usage and consists primarily of cash held as collateral in relation to obligations set forth by the landlord of our Poland facility.
The following table provides a summary of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash that constitutes the total amounts shown in the consolidated statements of cash flows as of April 30, 2020 and 2019:
Concentration of Credit Risk and of Significant Customers
Financial instruments which potentially expose us to concentrations of credit risk include cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, marketable securities and accounts receivable. We have cash investment policies which, among other things, limit investments to investment-grade securities. We restrict our cash equivalents and marketable securities to repurchase agreements with major banks and U.S. government and corporate securities which are subject to minimal credit and market risk. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers.
We sell our software products and services worldwide primarily to service providers consisting of operators, telecommunications companies, satellite operators and broadcasters. Two customers accounted for 13% and 15% of total revenue in the first quarter of fiscal 2021 and one customer accounted for 17% of total revenue in the first quarter of fiscal 2020. Two customers accounted for 22% and 13% of the accounts receivable balance as of April 30, 2020. Two customers accounted for 16% and 10% of the accounts receivable balance as of January 31, 2020.
Our investments in debt securities are classified as available-for-sale and are carried at fair value, with the unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders’ equity. Realized gains and losses and declines in value determined to be other than temporary are based on the specific identification method and are included as a component of other expense, net in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
We evaluate our investments with unrealized losses for other-than-temporary impairment. When assessing investments for other-than-temporary declines in value, we consider such factors as, among other things, how significant the decline in value is as a percentage of the original cost, how long the market value of the investment has been less than its original cost, our ability and intent to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value and market conditions in general. If any adjustment to fair value reflects a decline in the value of the investment that we consider to be “other than temporary,” we reduce the investment to fair value through a charge to the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss. No such adjustments were necessary during the periods presented.
Fair Value Measurements
Certain assets and liabilities are carried at fair value under U.S. GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value are to be classified and disclosed in one of the following three levels of the fair value hierarchy, of which the first two are considered observable and the last is considered unobservable:
Our cash equivalents and marketable securities are carried at fair value determined according to the fair value hierarchy described above. The carrying values of our accounts and other receivables, unbilled receivables, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to the short-term nature of these assets and liabilities.
Goodwill and Acquired Intangible Assets
We record goodwill when consideration paid in a business acquisition exceeds the value of the net assets acquired. Our estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable at that time but that are inherently uncertain and unpredictable. Assumptions may be incomplete or inaccurate and unanticipated events or circumstances may occur, which may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions, estimates or actual results. Goodwill is not amortized, but rather is tested for impairment annually on August 1st of each year, or more frequently if facts and circumstances warrant a review, such as the ones mentioned in impairments of long-lived assets below. We have determined that there is a single reporting unit for the purpose of conducting this goodwill impairment assessment. We assess both the existence of potential impairment and the amount of impairment loss by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. Through April 30, 2020, we have recorded accumulated goodwill impairment charges of $54.8 million.
Intangible assets are recorded at their estimated fair values at the date of acquisition. We amortize acquired intangible assets over their estimated useful lives based on the pattern of consumption of the economic benefits or, if that pattern cannot be readily determined, on a straight-line basis.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets primarily consist of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets with finite lives. Long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or group of assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability of long-lived assets or groups of assets is assessed based on a comparison of the carrying amount to the estimated future undiscounted cash flows. If estimated future undiscounted net cash flows are less than the carrying amount, the asset is considered impaired and expense is recorded at an amount required to reduce the carrying amount to fair value. Determining the fair value of long-lived assets includes significant judgment by management and different judgments could yield different results.
We assess the useful lives and possible impairment of existing recognized long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that indicate that it is more likely than not that an impairment has occurred. We test long-lived assets for impairment by comparing the carrying amount to the sum of the net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its net undiscounted cash flows, then an impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds its fair value. We use a discounted cash flow approach or other methods, if appropriate, to assess fair value. Factors considered important which could trigger a review include:
Determining whether a triggering event has occurred involves significant judgment. (see Note 5).
Our revenue is derived from sales of software licenses and associated hardware and support services, including professional services and maintenance fees related to our software licenses.
Our contracts, including contracts for our end-to-end software delivery platform solution (the “Framework”), often contain multiple performance obligations. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, we account for individual performance obligations separately if they are distinct. The transaction price is allocated to the separate performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis when available or expected cost plus margin or residual approach. If the transaction price contains discounts or we expect to provide future price concessions, these elements are considered when determining the transaction price prior to allocation. Variable fees within the transaction price are estimated and recognized as revenue when we satisfy our performance obligations to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur. If the contract grants the client the option to acquire additional products or services, we assess whether or not any discount on the products and services is in excess of levels normally available to similar clients and, if so, we account for that discount as an additional performance obligation.
We have concluded that the Framework has multiple performance obligations. The selling price of the Framework is highly variable as a result of our value-based engagement where pricing for our customers is based on the operating expense savings that we enable using the Framework engagement.
Framework Software Licenses
We have concluded that a Framework software license is a distinct performance obligation as the client can benefit from the software on its own. Software license revenue is included in product revenue in our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss and is typically recognized when control is transferred to the client, which is defined as the point in time when the client can use and benefit from the license. The software license is delivered before related services are provided and is functional without services, updates, and technical support. As a result of the highly variable selling price, revenue recognition and consideration related to the Framework software license is allocated under the residual method.
We have concluded that Framework hardware, when included in a Framework contract, is a distinct performance obligation as the client can benefit from the product. Framework hardware revenue is included in product revenue in our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss and is typically recognized when control is transferred to the customer, which is defined as the point in time when the client can use and benefit from the hardware. In situations where the hardware is distinct and it is delivered before services are provided and is functional without services, control is transferred upon delivery or acceptance by the customer.
Framework Support Services
We have concluded that Framework support services is a distinct performance obligation. Framework support services is included in services revenue in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Support services includes software upgrades on a when-and-if available basis, support, bug fixes or patches and general maintenance support. Framework support services is not sold on a standalone basis. The standalone selling price is determined using a cost-plus approach, and revenue is recognized ratably over the passage of the contractual term.
Legacy Software Licenses
We have concluded that a software license is a distinct performance obligation as the client can benefit from the software on its own. Software license revenue is included in product revenue in our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss and is typically recognized when control is transferred to the client, which is defined as the point in time when the client can use and benefit from the license. The software license is delivered before related services are provided and is functional without services, updates, and technical support.
We have concluded that hardware is a distinct performance obligation as the client can benefit from the product on its own. Hardware revenue is included in product revenue in our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss and is typically recognized when control is transferred to the customer, which is defined as the point in time when the client can use and benefit from the hardware. In situations where the hardware is distinct and it is delivered before services are provided and is functional without services, control is transferred upon delivery or acceptance by the customer.
Historically, maintenance revenue, which is included in services revenue in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, includes revenue from client support and related professional services. Client support includes software upgrades on a when-and-if available basis, telephone support, bug fixes or patches and general hardware maintenance support. Maintenance is priced as a percentage of the list price of the related software license and hardware. Historically, we determined the standalone selling price of maintenance based on this pricing relationship and observable data from standalone sales of maintenance.
We have identified three separate distinct performance obligations of maintenance:
These performance obligations are distinct within the contract and, although they are not sold separately, the components are not essential to the functionality of the other components. Each of the performance obligations included in maintenance revenue is a stand ready obligation that is recognized ratably over the passage of the contractual term for products sold on a standalone basis.
Historically, our services revenue, excluding maintenance revenue, is comprised of software license implementation services, engineering services, training and reimbursable expenses. We have concluded that services are distinct performance obligations, with the exception of engineering services. Engineering services may be provided on a standalone basis or bundled with a license when we are providing custom development.
The standalone selling price for services in time and materials contracts is determined by observable prices in standalone services arrangements and recognized as revenue as the services are performed based on an input measure of hours incurred to total estimated hours.
We estimate the standalone selling price for fixed price services based on estimated hours adjusted for historical experience at time and material rates charged in standalone services arrangements. Revenue for fixed price services is recognized over time as the services are provided based on an input measure of hours incurred to total estimated hours.
We occasionally enter into amendments to previously executed contracts that constitute contract modifications. We assess each of these contract modifications to determine:
A contract modification meeting both criteria is accounted for as a separate contract. A contract modification not meeting both criteria is considered a change to the original contract and is accounted for on either a prospective basis as a termination of the existing contract and the creation of a new contract or a cumulative catch-up basis.
Our contracts with customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment. Once we determine the performance obligations, we determine the transaction price, which includes estimating the amount of variable consideration to be included in the transaction price, if any. We then allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation in the contract based on a relative standalone selling price method. The corresponding revenue is recognized as the related performance obligations are satisfied as discussed in the revenue categories above.
Judgment is required to determine the standalone selling price for each distinct performance obligation. We determine standalone selling price based on the price at which the performance obligation is sold separately. If the standalone selling price is not observable through past transactions, we estimate the standalone selling price, taking into account available information such as market conditions, and internally approved pricing guidelines related to the performance obligations. In instances where stand-alone selling price is not directly observable, such as when we don’t sell the product or service separately, we determine the stand-alone selling price based on a cost-plus model as market and other observable inputs are seldom present based on the proprietary nature of our products and services.
Our contracts do not generally include a variable component to the transaction price. With certain statements of work, we explicitly state that we are to be reimbursed for reasonable travel and entertainment expenses incurred as part of the delivery of professional services. In the cases when we are entitled to collect all travel and entertainment expenses incurred, an estimate of the fulfillment costs is made at the onset of the contract in order to determine the transaction price. The revenue associated with travel and entertainment expenses is then recognized over time along with the professional services.
Some of our contracts have payment terms that differ from the timing of revenue recognition, which requires us to assess whether the transaction price for those contracts include a significant financing component. We have elected the practical expedient that permits an entity to not adjust for the effects of a significant financing component if we expect that at the contract inception, the period between when the entity transfers a promised good or service to a customer and when the customer pays for that good or service, will be one year or less. For those contracts in which the period exceeds the one-year threshold, this assessment, as well as the quantitative estimate of the financing component and its relative significance, requires judgment. We estimate the significant financing component provided to our customers with extended payment terms by determining the present value of the future payments by applying a discount rate that reflects the customer’s creditworthiness.
Contract assets consist of unbilled revenue, which is recognized as work progresses in accordance with agreed-upon contractual terms, either at periodic intervals or upon achievement of contractual milestones. Unbilled receivables expected to be billed and collected within one year are classified as current assets or long-term assets if expected to be billed and collected after one year. Contract liabilities consist of deferred revenue and customer deposits that arise when amounts are billed to or collected from customers in advance of revenue recognition.
Costs to Obtain and Fulfill a Contract
We recognize an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer if we expect the benefit of those costs to be longer than one year. We have determined that commissions and special incentive payments (“Spiffs”) for hardware and software maintenance and support and professional services paid under our sales incentive programs meet the requirements to be capitalized under ASC 340-40. Costs to obtain a contract are amortized as selling and marketing expense over the expected period of benefit in a manner that is consistent with the transfer of the related goods or services to which the asset relates. The judgments made in determining the amount of costs incurred include whether the commissions are in fact incremental and would not have occurred absent the customer contract and the estimate of the amortization period. The commissions and Spiffs related to professional services are amortized over time as work is completed. The commissions and Spiffs for hardware and software maintenance are amortized over the life of the contract. These costs are periodically reviewed for impairment. We determined that no impairment of these assets existed as of April 30, 2020 or January 31, 2020. We have elected to apply the practical expedient and recognize the incremental costs of obtaining contracts as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the assets that we otherwise would have recognized is one year or less. Total deferred capitalized commission costs were $893 thousand as of April 30, 2020 compared to $958 thousand as of January 31, 2020. Current deferred capitalized commission costs are included in prepaid expense and other current assets in our consolidated balance sheets and non-current deferred capitalized commission costs are included in other assets in our consolidated balance sheets. Capitalized commissions expensed during the three months ended April 30, 2020 and 2019 included in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss were $135 thousand and $38 thousand, respectively.
We capitalize incremental costs incurred to fulfill our contracts that (i) relate directly to the contract, (ii) are expected to generate resources that will be used to satisfy our performance obligation under the contract, and (iii) are expected to be recovered through revenue generated under the contract. Contract fulfillment costs include direct labor for support services, software enhancements, reimbursable expenses and professional services for customized software development costs. The revenue associated with the support services, software enhancements and reimbursable expenses is recognized ratably over time; therefore, the associated costs are expensed as incurred. The professional services associated with the customized software are not recognized until completion. As such, the professional services costs are capitalized and recognized upon completion of the services.
We account for our leases in accordance with ASC 842, Leases. A contract is accounted for as a lease when we have the right to control the asset for a period of time while obtaining substantially all of the asset’s economic benefits. We determine if an arrangement is a lease or contains an embedded lease at inception. For arrangements that meet the definition of a lease, we determine the initial classification and measurement of our right-of-use operating lease asset and corresponding liability at the lease commencement date. We determine the classification and measurement of a modified lease at the date it is modified. The lease term includes only renewal options that are reasonably assured to exercise. The present value of lease payments is typically determined by using the Company’s estimated secured incremental borrowing rate for the associated lease term as interest rates implicit in the leases are not normally readily determinable. Management’s policy is to utilize the practical expedient to not record leases with an original term of twelve months or less on our consolidated balance sheets. Lease payments are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Our existing leases are for facilities and equipment. None of our leases are with related parties. In addition to rent, office leases may require us to pay additional amounts for taxes, insurance, maintenance and other expenses, which are generally referred to as non-lease components. As a practical expedient, we account for the non-lease components together with the lease components as a single lease component for all of our leases. Only the fixed costs for leases are accounted for as a single lease component and recognized as part of a right-of-use asset and liability.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of unrestricted common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the sum of the weighted average number of unrestricted common shares outstanding during the period and the weighted average number of potential common shares from the assumed exercise of stock options and the vesting of shares of restricted and deferred common stock units using the “treasury stock” method when the effect is not anti-dilutive. In periods in which we report a net loss, diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share.
The number of common shares used in the computation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented does not include the effect of the following potentially outstanding common shares because the effect would have been anti-dilutive:
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncement
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326), which introduces a new methodology for accounting for credit losses on financial instruments, including available-for-sale debt securities and accounts receivable. The guidance establishes a new “expected loss model” that requires entities to estimate current expected credit losses on financial instruments by using all practical and relevant information. Any expected credit losses are to be reflected as allowances rather than reductions in the amortized cost of available-for-sale debt securities. ASU 2016-13 is effective in the first quarter of our fiscal 2024. We are currently evaluating if this guidance will have a material effect to our consolidated financial statements.