Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Apr. 30, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, those related to revenue recognition, allowance for credit losses, management’s going concern assessment, accounting for income taxes, and the valuation of stock-based awards. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience, known trends and other market-specific or relevant factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates its estimates as there are changes in circumstances, facts and experience. Changes in estimates are recorded in the period in which they become known. Actual results may differ materially from those estimates or assumptions.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and on deposit and highly liquid investments in treasury bills with remaining maturities at the date of purchase of 90 days or less. All cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates fair value. Restricted cash represents cash that is restricted as to withdrawal or usage and consists primarily of cash held as collateral in relation to obligations set forth by the landlord of our facility in Poland.
The following table provides a summary of (i) cash and cash equivalents and (ii) restricted cash in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows as of the periods presented:
Restricted cash is included as a component of other assets in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
The Company’s investments, consisting of debt securities, are classified as available-for-sale and are carried at fair value, with the unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders’ equity. Realized gains and losses and declines in value determined to be other than temporary are based on the specific identification method and are included as a component of other income (expense), net in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company assesses its available-for-sale debt securities under the available-for-sale debt security impairment model in ASC 326 as of each reporting date in order to determine if a portion of any decline in fair value below carrying value recognized on its available-for-sale debt securities is the result of a credit loss. The Company records credit losses in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss as credit loss expense within other expense, net, which is limited to the difference between the fair value and the amortized cost of the marketable security. To date, the Company has not recorded any credit losses on its available-for-sale debt securities.
Fair Value Measurements
Certain assets and liabilities are carried at fair value under GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value are to be classified and disclosed in one of the following three levels of the fair value hierarchy, of which the first two are considered observable and the last is considered unobservable:
Level 1—Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2—Observable inputs (other than Level 1 quoted prices), such as quoted prices in active markets for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active for identical or similar assets or liabilities, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to determining the fair value of the assets or liabilities, including pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies and similar techniques.
The Company’s cash equivalents and marketable securities are carried at fair value determined according to the fair value hierarchy described above. The carrying values of accounts and other receivables, unbilled receivables, net, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximate their fair values due to the short-term nature of these assets and liabilities.
Accounts Receivable, Unbilled Receivables, and Allowance for Credit Losses
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at invoiced amounts, net of allowance for credit losses, if applicable, and are unsecured and do not bear interest. Unbilled receivables are derived from the allocation of contract consideration for products and services, such as software licenses, which is recognized when such products and services are transferred to the customer. Payment for unbilled
receivables is received over the contract term, which typically ranges between one and five years. Unbilled receivables are presented net of allowances for credit losses.
The allowance for credit losses is based on the probability of future collection under the current expect credited loss (“CECL”) impairment model under ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Assets, which was adopted by the Company on February 1, 2023, as discussed below within Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements. Under the CECL impairment model, the Company determines its allowance by applying a loss-rate method based on an aging schedule using the Company’s historical loss rate. The Company also considers reasonable and supportable current information in determining its estimated loss rates, such as external forecasts, macroeconomic trends or other factors including customers’ credit risk and historical loss experience. The adequacy of the allowance is evaluated on a regular basis. Account balances are written off after all means of collection are exhausted and the balance is deemed uncollectible. Subsequent recoveries are credited to the allowance. Changes in the allowance are recorded as adjustments to the provision for credit losses in the period incurred.
Prior to February 1, 2023, trade and unbilled receivables were presented net of allowance for credit losses based on the credit risk of specific clients, past collection history, and management’s evaluation of other risks. Subsequent to February 1, 2023, under the CECL impairment model, expected credit losses stemming from unbilled receivables expected to be billed between one to five years from each balance sheet are estimated based on factors such as projected inflation, projected decreases in GDP, and projected unemployment, which include additional risk premiums based on the lengths of contracts.
Concentration of Credit Risk and of Significant Customers
Financial instruments which potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk include cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, marketable securities and accounts receivable. The Company has cash investment policies which, among other things, limit investments to investment-grade securities. The Company restricts its cash equivalents and marketable securities to repurchase agreements with major banks and U.S. government and corporate securities which are subject to credit and market risk, and are currently protected by limits offered through the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of the Company’s customers.
On March 10, 2023, one of the financial institutions that the Company has accounts, Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”), was closed by the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation, which appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the "FDIC") as receiver. To protect depositors, the FDIC transferred all deposits and substantially all of the assets of SVB to a receivership bank to be operated by FDIC as it markets the institution to potential bidders. In addition, the FDIC ultimately guaranteed all of our deposits formerly held with SVB. At the time of the SVB closure, the Company had funds deposited with SVB in various domestic and foreign accounts totaling approximately $5.0 million. On March 13, 2023, the receivership bank opened, and the Company had access to its accounts and has since transferred $5.0 million to other financial institutions.
The Company sells its software products and services worldwide primarily to service providers consisting of operators, telecommunications companies, satellite operators and broadcasters. A customer accounted for 14% and 26% of total revenue for the three months ended April 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and a customer accounted for 22% and 21% of the combined accounts receivable, net and unbilled receivables, net balance as of April 30, 2023 and January 31, 2023, respectively.
The Company recognizes revenue following the guidance under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The Company’s revenue is derived from sales of software licenses and associated third-party hardware and support services, as well as professional services and support fees related to the Company’s software licenses.
The Company recognizes revenue from contracts with customers using a five-step model, which is described below:
identify the customer contract;
identify performance obligations in the contract;
determine the transaction price;
allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations; and
recognize revenue as the performance obligations are satisfied.
Identify the customer contract
A customer contract is generally identified when there is approval and commitment from both the Company and its customer, the rights have been identified, payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance and collectability and consideration is probable.
Identify performance obligations in the contract
The Company enters into contracts that include combinations of license, support and professional services, and third-party products, which are accounted for as separate performance obligations. A performance obligation is a promise to provide a distinct good or service or a series of distinct goods or services. A good or service that is promised to a customer is distinct if the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer, and a company’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract.
Determine the transaction price
The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer, excluding sales and value-added taxes ("VAT") that are collected on behalf of government agencies. Some contracts provide the customer a license to use the Company’s functional intellectual property in exchange for royalty payments. These arrangements may include fixed, minimum guaranteed amounts of consideration as well as a variable amount that is contingent on the revenues earned by the customer related to the license.
Allocate the transaction price to the contract performance obligations
The Company’s contracts typically contain multiple performance obligations. The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling prices (“SSP”) of the goods or services being provided to the customer for which it accounts for individual performance obligations separately.
Recognize revenue as the performance obligations are satisfied
The Company’s contracts may contain multiple performance obligations with differing revenue recognition patterns. Revenue is recognized when or as control of the promised goods or services is transferred to customers. The Company’s software licenses may be perpetual, whereby the customer receives rights to use the software for an indefinite time period, or the license may be for a specified term. Transfer of the license and revenue recognition, including minimum guaranteed license royalties, occurs at the point in time the customer has the ability to download, use or access the software. Variable license royalties contingent on customer sales of products are recognized when the subsequent sales occur and the contingency is resolved. The Company’s customers may also contract for a Software as a Service (“SaaS”) offering whereby the customer only has a right to access the Company’s software for a defined term. SaaS licenses are recognized ratably over the subscription period beginning on the date the license is made available to customers.
The Company’s services revenue is comprised of support services and professional services. Support services consist of software upgrades on a when-and-if available basis, telephone support, bug fixes or patches and general hardware maintenance support. Revenue related to support services is recognized ratably over the term of the contract. Professional services are recognized as the services are performed.
Revenues attributable to third-party products typically consist of hardware and related support contracts. Hardware products are typically recognized when control is transferred to the customer, which is defined as the point in time when the client can use and benefit from the hardware. In situations where the hardware is distinct and it is delivered before services are provided and is functional without services, control is transferred upon delivery or acceptance by the customer. Revenue attributable to third-party support contracts is recognized ratably over the term of the contract.
The Company’s contracts with customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment. Once the Company determines the performance obligations, it determines the transaction price, which includes estimating the amount of variable consideration to be included in the transaction price, if any. The Company then allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation in the contract based on the SSP. The corresponding revenue is recognized as the related performance obligations are satisfied.
Judgment is required to determine the SSP for each distinct performance obligation. The Company determines SSP based on the observable price of goods and services when the Company sells those goods and services separately in similar circumstances to similar customers. The Company estimates the SSP of certain goods and services when there is no directly observable separate pricing under the guidance of ASC 606-10-32-33. If the SSP is not observable through past transactions, the SSP is estimated, taking into
account available information such as market conditions, expected margins, and internally approved pricing guidelines related to the performance obligations.
The Company enters into contracts with its customers that may include promises to transfer multiple performance obligations in the arrangement, such as software licenses, support, and professional services. The total fee of the contract may consist of one fixed price for all of the performance obligations or each performance obligation may be separately stated in the contract. Regardless of how the performance obligations are priced in the contract, the Company must determine the transaction price to be allocated to each identified performance obligation. The Company recognizes the portion of the transaction price allocated to the software license on a residual basis. The residual basis is used to allocate revenue when the contract arrangement includes a software license and has at least one performance obligation for which the SSP is observable (i.e., hardware and/or support services). The residual method is used as the selling price for software licenses in circumstances when the transaction price is highly variable and the SSP is not discernable from past transactions or other observable evidence. The Company periodically re-evaluates its use of the residual approach estimate compared to all available observable data before concluding the estimate is representative of SSP. In these contracts, the Company typically has observable SSP for the associated support services, and hardware, if applicable.
The Company also provides SaaS offerings, combining access to the Company’s software platform with support services (inclusive of technical support and unspecified upgrades and bug fixes). The SaaS offering and support services are stand-ready obligations with the same pattern of transfer of control. SaaS offerings do not include the right for the customer to take possession of the software during the contract term. Typically, SaaS offerings include one distinct performance obligation, satisfied over time, with revenue recognized ratably over the contract term as the customer consumes the services. Services revenue is comprised of software license implementation, engineering, training and reimbursable expenses. Services are sold on both a standalone basis and as part of the Company’s customer contracts. The Company has concluded these services are typically distinct performance obligations. For implementation, engineering and training services, revenue is recognized on an input method as hours are incurred and services are provided compared to total estimated hours. The Company estimates the SSP for fixed price services based on estimated hours adjusted for historical experience using the time and materials rates charged in standalone service arrangements. When sold on a time and materials basis, SSP for services is determined by observable prices in standalone service arrangements. Certain engineering services sold with support contracts are not distinct in the context of the contract and those services are bundled with other distinct services to form a single stand-ready performance obligation which is recognized ratably over the relevant service period.
The Company has utilized the cost-plus margin method to determine the SSP for software support services offerings and hardware sales when observable standalone pricing for support service offerings are not readily available. When support services are sold on an “a-la-carte” basis with the Company’s software offerings, the Company typically determines the SSP of these support services based on this pricing relationship and observable data from standalone sales of support contracts. The expected cost-plus margin for hardware is based on the cost of the hardware from third parties, plus a reasonable markup that the Company believes is reflective of a market-based reseller margin.
Some contracts have payment terms that differ from the timing of revenue recognition, which requires the Company to assess whether the transaction price for those contracts includes a significant financing component. The Company has elected the practical expedient that permits an entity to not adjust for the effects of a significant financing component if the Company expects that at the contract inception, the period between when the entity transfers a promised good or service to a customer and when the customer pays for that good or service, will be one year or less. For those contracts in which the period exceeds the one-year threshold, this assessment, as well as the quantitative estimate of the financing component and its relative significance, requires judgment. The Company estimates the significant financing component provided to its customers with extended payment terms by determining the present value of the future payments by applying an average standard industry discount rate that reflects the customer’s creditworthiness.
Payment terms with customers typically require payment 30 days from invoice date. Agreements with customers do not provide for any refunds for services or products and therefore no specific reserve for such is maintained. In the infrequent instances where customers raise a concern over delivered products or services, the Company has endeavored to remedy the concern and all costs related to such matters have been insignificant in all periods presented.
The Company occasionally enters into amendments to previously executed contracts that may constitute contract modifications. The amendments are assessed to determine if (1) the additional products and services are distinct from the product and services in the original arrangement; and (2) the amount of consideration expected for the added products and services reflects the SSP of those products and services. An amendment or contract modification meeting both criteria is accounted for as a separate contract. A contract modification not meeting both criteria is considered a change to the original contract and is accounted for on either a prospective basis as a termination of the existing contract and the creation of a new contract or a cumulative catch-up basis.
When either party to a contract has performed, an entity shall present the contract in the statement of financial position as a contract asset or a contract liability, depending on the relationship between the entity’s performance and the customer’s payment. An entity shall present any unconditional rights to consideration separately as a receivable. Contract liabilities, which consist primarily of
deferred revenue as of April 30, 2023 and January 31, 2023, are classified as current liabilities if expected to be invoiced or recognized within the next year. There were no contract assets as of April 30, 2023 and January 31, 2023.
Costs to Obtain and Fulfill a Contract
The Company recognizes an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer if the Company expects the benefit of those costs to be longer than one year. The Company has determined that commissions and special incentive payments (“Spiffs”) for hardware and software maintenance and support and professional services paid under the Company’s sales incentive programs meet the requirements to be capitalized under ASC 340-40. Costs to obtain a contract are amortized as selling and marketing expense over the expected period of benefit in a manner that is consistent with the transfer of the related goods or services to which the asset relates. Significant judgments made in determining the amount of costs capitalized include whether the commissions are in fact incremental and would not have occurred absent the customer contract and the estimate of the amortization period. The commissions and Spiffs related to professional services are amortized over time as work is completed. The commissions and Spiffs for hardware and software maintenance are amortized over the life of the contract. These costs are periodically reviewed for impairment. The Company determined that no impairment of these assets existed as of January 31, 2023 or 2022. The Company has elected to apply the practical expedient and recognize the incremental costs of obtaining contracts as an expense when incurred if the amortization period of the assets that the Company otherwise would have recognized is one year or less. Total deferred capitalized commission costs were $144 thousand and $162 thousand as of April 30, 2023 and January 31, 2023, respectively. Current deferred capitalized commission costs are included in prepaid expense and other current assets in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets and non-current deferred capitalized commission costs are included in other assets in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. Capitalized commissions expensed during the three months ended April 30, 2023 and 2022 were $18 thousand and $37 thousand, respectively, and are included in the condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of unrestricted common shares outstanding during the period.
Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the sum of the weighted average number of unrestricted common shares outstanding during the period and the weighted average number of potential common shares from the assumed exercise of stock options and the vesting of shares of RSUs , DSUs , and PSUs using the “treasury stock” method when the effect is not anti-dilutive. For periods in which the Company reports a net loss, diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share.
The number of common shares used in the computation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented does not include the effect of the following potentially outstanding common shares because the effect would have been antidilutive:
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncement
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326), which introduces a new methodology for accounting for credit losses on financial instruments, including available-for-sale debt securities and accounts receivable. The guidance establishes a new “expected loss model” that requires entities to estimate current expected credit losses on financial instruments by using all practical and relevant information. Any expected credit losses are to be reflected as allowances rather than reductions in the amortized cost of available-for-sale debt securities.
The amendments are effective on February 1, 2023 for the Company, and must be applied using a modified retrospective approach with a cumulative-effect adjustment through retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year upon adoption as required. While the standard modifies the measurement of the allowance for credit losses, it does not alter the credit risk of our trade or unbilled receivables. The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-13 using an estimated expected credit losses using the historical loss rate method for its trade accounts receivable and unbilled receivables as of January 31, 2023, with additional risk premiums for unbilled receivables expected to be billed after January 31, 2024 (one year after the adoption date). The adoption of the standard resulted in a cumulative beginning of year retained earnings adjustment of $0.2 million.
Under the CECL impairment model, the Company develops and documents its allowance for credit losses on its trade and unbilled receivables based on four portfolio segments by customer geographic location: North America, Latin America, Europe, and Other. The determination of portfolio segments is based primarily on the qualitative consideration of the credit risks driven by macroeconomic and geopolitical factors affecting customers in these geographic locations.
Our quantitative allowance for credit loss estimates under CECL was determined using the loss rate method, which is impacted by certain forecasted economic factors. In addition to our quantitative allowance for credit losses, we also incorporate qualitative adjustments that may relate to unique risks, changes in current economic conditions that may not be reflected in quantitatively derived results, or other relevant factors to further inform our estimate of the allowance for credit losses.
Additionally, due to the expansion of the time horizon over which we are required to estimate future credit losses, we may experience increased volatility in our future provisions for credit losses. Factors that could contribute to such volatility include, but are not limited to, changes in the composition and credit quality of customer base, economic conditions and forecasts, the allowance for credit loss models that are used, the data that is included in the models, the associated qualitative allowance framework, and our estimation techniques.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef