Nature of Business and Basis of Presentation (Policies)
|6 Months Ended|
Jul. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation||
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of SeaChange International, Inc. and its subsidiaries (“SeaChange” or the “Company”) and are prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial reports as well as rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared under U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such regulations. However, we believe that the disclosures are adequate to make the information presented not misleading. In the opinion of management, the accompanying financial statements include all adjustments, consisting of only normal recurring items, necessary to present a fair presentation of the consolidated financial statements for the periods shown. These consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with our most recently audited financial statements and related footnotes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) as filed with the SEC. The balance sheet data as of January 31, 2017 that is included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (“Form 10-Q”) was derived from our audited financial statements. We have reclassified certain amounts previously reported in our financial statements to conform to current presentation.
Effective February 1, 2017, the Company changed how it classifies costs associated with its solution architect employees. In fiscal 2017, all solution architect costs were classified as cost of revenues. However, beginning in fiscal 2018, the Company began reflecting in cost of revenues only those costs associated with revenue-generating projects, based on the hours worked by solutions architect employees. Solutions architect costs that are not associated with revenue-generating projects are recognized as selling and marketing expenses since these employees are involved in pre-sales and other customer-facing activities.
We have adjusted prior fiscal year amounts to conform the current fiscal year presentation. The effect of this change in methodology, which is a decrease to cost of revenues and an increase to selling and marketing expenses, is reflected in our current statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and six months ended July 31, 2016 as follows:
The preparation of these financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP, requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the full fiscal year or any future periods and actual results may differ from our estimates. During the three and six months ended July 31, 2017, there have been no material changes to our significant accounting policies that were described in our fiscal 2017 Form 10-K, as filed with the SEC.
The Company believes that existing funds and cash provided by future operating activities are adequate to satisfy our working capital, potential acquisitions and capital expenditure requirements and other contractual obligations for the foreseeable future, including at least the next 12 months. However, if our expectations are incorrect, we may need to raise additional funds to fund our operations, to take advantage of unanticipated strategic opportunities or to strengthen our financial position. In the future, we may enter into other arrangements for potential investments in, or acquisitions of, complementary businesses, services or technologies, which could require us to seek additional equity or debt financing. Additional funds may not be available on terms that are favorable.
In addition, we actively review potential acquisitions that would complement our existing product offerings, enhance our technical capabilities or expand our marketing and sales presence. Any future transaction of this nature could require potentially significant amounts of capital or could require us to issue our stock and dilute existing stockholders. If adequate funds are not available, or are not available on acceptable terms, we may not be able to take advantage of market opportunities, to develop new products or to otherwise respond to competitive pressures.
In the second quarter of fiscal 2017, following a review of our operations, liquidity and funding, and investment in our product roadmap, we determined that the ability to access cash resulting from earnings in prior fiscal years that had previously been deemed permanently restricted for foreign investment would provide greater flexibility to meet the Company’s working capital needs. Accordingly, in the second quarter of fiscal 2017, we withdrew the permanent reinvestment assertion on $58.6 million of earnings generated by our Irish operations through July 2016. We recorded a charge to deferred tax liability of $14.7 million related to the foreign income taxes on $58.6 million of undistributed earnings. The balance of the deferred tax liability is $16.3 million as of July 31, 2017.
Our transactions frequently involve the sales of hardware, software, systems and services in multiple-element arrangements. Revenues from sales of hardware, software and systems that do not require significant modification or customization of the underlying software are recognized when:
Customers are billed for installation, training, project management and at least one year of product maintenance and technical support at the time of the product sale. Revenue from these activities is deferred at the time of the product sale and recognized ratably over the period these services are performed. Revenue from ongoing product maintenance and technical support agreements is recognized ratably over the period of the related agreements. Revenue from software development contracts that include significant modification or customization, including software product enhancements, is recognized based on the percentage of completion contract accounting method using labor efforts expended in relation to estimates of total labor efforts to complete the contract. The percentage of completion method requires that adjustments or re-evaluations to estimated project revenues and costs be recognized on a project-to-date cumulative basis, as changes to the estimates are identified. Revisions to project estimates are made as additional information becomes known, including information that becomes available after the date of the consolidated financial statements up through the date such consolidated financial statements are filed with the SEC. If the final estimated profit to complete a long-term contract indicates a loss, a provision is recorded immediately for the total loss anticipated. Accounting for contract amendments and customer change orders are included in contract accounting when executed. Revenue from shipping and handling costs and other out-of-pocket expenses reimbursed by customers are included in revenues and cost of revenues. Our share of intercompany profits associated with sales and services provided to affiliated companies are eliminated in consolidation in proportion to our equity ownership.
Contract accounting requires judgment relative to assessing risks, estimating revenues and costs and making assumptions including, in the case of our professional services contracts, the total amount of labor required to complete a project and the complexity of the development and other technical work to be completed. Due to the size and nature of many of our contracts, the estimation of total revenues and cost at completion is complicated and subject to many variables. Assumptions must be made regarding the length of time to complete the contract because costs also include estimated third-party vendor and contract labor costs. Penalties related to performance on contracts are considered in estimating sales and profit, and are recorded when there is sufficient information for us to assess anticipated performance. Third-party vendors’ assertions are also assessed and considered in estimating costs and margin.
Revenue from the sale of software-only products remains within the scope of the software revenue recognition rules. Maintenance and support, training, consulting, and installation services no longer fall within the scope of the software revenue recognition rules, except when they are sold with and relate to a software-only product. Revenue recognition for products that no longer fall under the scope of the software revenue recognition rules is like that for other tangible products and Accounting Standard Update No. (“ASU”) 2009-13, “Revenue Recognition (Topic 605): Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements,” amended ASC 605 and is applicable for multiple-deliverable revenue arrangements. ASU 2009-13 allows companies to allocate revenue in a multiple-deliverable arrangement in a manner that better reflects the transaction’s economics.
Under the software revenue recognition rules, the fee is allocated to the various elements based on vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) of fair value. Under this method, the total arrangement value is allocated first to undelivered elements based on their fair values, with the remainder being allocated to the delivered elements. Where fair value of undelivered service elements has not been established, the total arrangement value is recognized over the period during which the services are performed. The amounts allocated to undelivered elements, which may include project management, training, installation, maintenance and technical support and certain hardware and software components, are based upon the price charged when these elements are sold separately and unaccompanied by the other elements. The amount allocated to installation, training and project management revenue is based upon standard hourly billing rates and the estimated time necessary to complete the service. These services are not essential to the functionality of systems as these services do not alter the equipment’s capabilities, are available from other vendors and the systems are standard products. For multiple-element arrangements that include software development with significant modification or customization and systems sales where VSOE of the fair value does not exist for the undelivered elements of the arrangement (other than maintenance and technical support), percentage of completion accounting is applied for revenue recognition purposes to the entire arrangement except for maintenance and technical support.
Under the revenue recognition rules for tangible products as amended by ASU 2009-13, the fee from a multiple-deliverable arrangement is allocated to each of the deliverables based upon their relative selling prices as determined by a selling-price hierarchy. A deliverable in an arrangement qualifies as a separate unit of accounting if the delivered item has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis. A delivered item that does not qualify as a separate unit of accounting is combined with the other undelivered items in the arrangement and revenue is recognized for those combined deliverables as a single unit of accounting. The selling price used for each deliverable is based upon VSOE if available, third-party evidence (“TPE”) if VSOE is not available, and best estimate of selling price (“BESP”) if neither VSOE nor TPE are available. TPE is the price of the Company’s, or any competitor’s, largely interchangeable products or services in stand-alone sales to similarly situated customers. BESP is the price at which we would sell the deliverable if it were sold regularly on a stand-alone basis, considering market conditions and entity-specific factors.
The selling prices used in the relative selling price allocation method for certain of our services are based upon VSOE. The selling prices used in the relative selling price allocation method for third-party products from other vendors are based upon TPE. The selling prices used in the relative selling price allocation method for our hardware products, software, subscriptions, and customized services for which VSOE does not exist are based upon BESP. We do not believe TPE exists for these products and services because they are differentiated from competing products and services in terms of functionality and performance and there are no competing products or services that are largely interchangeable. Management establishes BESP with consideration for market conditions, such as the impact of competition and geographic considerations, and entity-specific factors, such as the cost of the product, discounts provided and profit objectives. Management believes that BESP is reflective of reasonable pricing of that deliverable as if priced on a stand-alone basis.
For our cloud and managed service revenues, we generate revenue from two sources: (1) subscription and support services; and (2) professional services and other. Subscription and support revenue includes subscription fees from customers accessing our cloud-based software platform and support fees. Our arrangements with customers do not provide the customer with the right to take possession of the software supporting the cloud-based software platform at any time. Professional services and other revenue include fees from implementation and customization to support customer requirements. Amounts that have been invoiced are recorded in accounts receivable and in deferred revenue or revenue, depending on whether the revenue recognition criteria have been met. For the most part, subscription and support agreements are entered into for 12 to 36 months. Generally, most of the professional services components of the arrangements with customers are performed within a year of entering a contract with the customer.
In most instances, revenue from a new customer acquisition is generated under sales agreements with multiple elements, comprised of subscription and support and other professional services. We evaluate each element in a multiple-element arrangement to determine whether it represents a separate unit of accounting. An element constitutes a separate unit of accounting when the delivered item has standalone value and delivery of the undelivered element is probable and within our control.
In determining when to recognize revenue from a customer arrangement, we are often required to exercise judgment regarding the application of our accounting policies to an arrangement. The primary judgments used in evaluating revenue recognized in each period involve: determining whether collection is probable, assessing whether the fee is fixed or determinable, and determining the fair value of the maintenance and service elements included in multiple-element software arrangements. Such judgments can materially impact the amount of revenue that we record in a given period. While we follow specific and detailed rules and guidelines related to revenue recognition, we make and use significant management judgments and estimates about the revenue recognized in any reporting period, particularly in the areas described above. If management made different estimates or judgments, material differences in the timing of the recognition of revenue could occur.
|Impairment of Assets||
Impairment of Assets
Indefinite-lived intangible assets, such as goodwill, are not amortized but are evaluated for impairment at the reporting unit level annually, in our third quarter beginning August 1st. Indefinite-lived intangible assets may be tested for impairment on an interim basis in addition to the annual evaluation if an event occurs or circumstances change such as declines in sales, earnings or cash flows, sustained decline in the Company’s stock price, or material adverse changes in the business climate, which would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. See Note 6, “Goodwill and Intangible Assets,” to our consolidated financial statements for more information.
We also evaluate property and equipment, intangible assets with finite useful lives and other long-lived assets on a regular basis for the existence of facts or circumstances, both internal and external that may suggest an asset is not recoverable. If such circumstances exist, we evaluate the carrying value of long-lived assets to determine if impairment exists based upon estimated undiscounted future cash flows over the remaining useful life of the assets and compare that value to the carrying value of the assets. Our cash flow estimates contain management’s best estimates, using appropriate and customary assumptions and projections at the time.
We continue to realize savings related to the restructuring of our In-Home business. Additionally, during the first quarter of fiscal 2018, we made significant reductions to our headcount as part of our ongoing restructuring effort from which we expect to generate annualized savings of approximately $10 million. These measures are important steps in restoring SeaChange to profitability and positive cash flow. The Company believes that existing funds and cash expected to be provided by future operating activities, augmented by the plans highlighted above, are adequate to satisfy our working capital, potential acquisitions and capital expenditure requirements and other contractual obligations for the foreseeable future, including at least the next 12 months.
|Fair Value Measurements||
Definition and Hierarchy
The applicable accounting guidance defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The guidance establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands required disclosure about the fair value measurements of assets and liabilities. This guidance requires us to classify and disclose assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis, as well as fair value measurements of assets and liabilities measured on a non-recurring basis in periods subsequent to initial measurement, in a fair value hierarchy.
The fair value hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the reliability of inputs and requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs, where available. The following summarizes the three levels of inputs required, as well as the assets and liabilities that we value using those levels of inputs:
Inputs to valuation techniques are observable and unobservable. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect our market assumptions. When developing fair value estimates for certain financial assets and liabilities, we maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. When available, we use quoted market prices, market comparables and discounted cash flow projections. Financial assets include money market funds, U.S. treasury notes or bonds, U.S. government agency bonds and Corporate bonds.
In general, and where applicable, we use quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities to determine fair value. If quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities are not available to determine fair value, then we use quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities or inputs that are observable either directly or indirectly. In periods of market inactivity, the observability of prices and inputs may be reduced for certain instruments. This condition could cause an instrument to be reclassified from Level 1 to Level 2 or from Level 2 to Level 3.
|Recent Accounting Standard Updates||
Recent Accounting Standard Updates
We consider the applicability and impact of all ASUs on our consolidated financial statements. Updates not listed below were assessed and determined to be either not applicable or are expected to have minimal impact on our consolidated financial position or results of operations. Recently issued ASUs which we feel may be applicable to us are as follows:
Recently Issued Accounting Standard Updates – Not Yet Adopted
Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606).” ASU 2014-09 provides enhancements to the quality and consistency of how revenue is reported while also improving comparability in the financial statements of companies using International Financial Reporting Standards and U.S. GAAP. The core principle requires entities to recognize revenue in a manner that depicts the transfer of goods or services to customers in amounts that reflect the consideration an entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. In July 2015, the FASB voted to approve a one year deferral, making the standard effective for public entities for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-08, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net).” The purpose of ASU 2016-08 is to clarify the guidance on principal versus agent considerations. It includes indicators that help to determine whether an entity controls the specified good or service before it is transferred to the customer and to assist in determining when the entity satisfied the performance obligation and as such, whether to recognize a gross or a net amount of consideration in their consolidated statement of operations.
In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-10, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing.” ASU 2016-10 clarifies that entities are not required to assess whether promised goods or services are performance obligations if they are immaterial in the context of the contract. ASU 2016-10 also addresses how to determine whether promised goods or services are separately identifiable and permits entities to make a policy election to treat shipping and handling costs as fulfillment activities. In addition, it clarifies key provisions in Topic 606 related to licensing.
In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-11, “Revenue Recognition (Topic 605) and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815).” ASU 2016-11 rescinds previous SEC comments that were codified in Topic 605, Topic 932 and Topic 815. Upon adoption of Topic 606, certain SEC comments including guidance on accounting for shipping and handling fees and costs and consideration given by a vendor to a customer should not be relied upon.
In May 2016, the FASB also issued ASU 2016-12, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Narrow Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients.” ASU 2016-12 provides clarity around collectability, presentation of sales taxes, non-cash consideration, contract modifications at transition and completed contracts at transition. ASU 2016-12 also includes a technical correction within Topic 606 related to required disclosures if the guidance is applied retrospectively upon adoption.
In December 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-20, “Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” ASU 2016-20 allows entities not to make quantitative disclosures about remaining performance obligations in certain cases and requires entities that use any of the optional exemptions to expand their qualitative disclosures. ASU 2016-20 also clarifies other areas of the new revenue standard, including disclosure requirements for prior period performance obligations, impairment guidance for contract costs and the interaction of impairment guidance in ASC 340-40 with other guidance elsewhere in the Codification.
The Company will adopt Topic 606 effective February 1, 2018 under the modified retrospective method and will only apply this method to contracts that are not completed as of the date of adoption. The modified retrospective method will result in a cumulative effect of initially applying the standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings at the date of initial application for any open contracts as of the adoption date. The Company has established an implementation team, including the utilization of third-party resources, to assist with its assessment of the impact of the new revenue guidance on its operations, consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. In addition, the Company has made investments in systems to enable timely and accurate reporting under the new standard. To date, the Company’s assessment has included (1) utilizing questionnaires to assist with the identification of revenue streams, (2) performing sample contract analyses for each revenue stream identified, (3) assessing the noted differences in recognition and measurement that may result from adopting this new standard, (4) performing detailed analyses of contracts with larger customers, and (5) developing plans to test transactions for consistency with contract provisions that affect revenue recognition. Based on the preliminary results of the evaluation, which is still in process, the Company currently believes that the most significant potential changes to be the allocation of transaction price to performance obligations which will be based on a relative standalone selling price analysis, which may differ from the Company’s historical allocation of transaction consideration under legacy U.S. GAAP, and the timing of revenue recognition which may be at a later point in time than under legacy U.S. GAAP. As part of the preliminary procedures completed by the Company they have also assessed accounting for incremental costs to obtain a contract and costs incurred in fulfilling a contract. Based on preliminary results of the evaluation, which is still in process, the Company currently believes that the most significant potential change to be accounting for commissions, as these incremental costs are expected to be capitalized and will be amortized over a period of time which could extend beyond the initial contract term. The Company also anticipates changes to the consolidated balance sheet related to accounts receivable, contract assets, and contract liabilities, as well as, significant changes to its disclosures to comply with the new disclosure requirements under Topic 606. The Company is continuing to design the necessary changes to its business processes, systems and controls to support recognition and disclosure under the new standard. Further, the Company is continuing to assess what incremental disaggregated revenue and other disclosures will be required in its consolidated financial statements, which the Company believes will be significant. Given the continuing analysis and implementation, the Company cannot reasonably estimate quantitative information related to the impact of the new guidance on its consolidated financial statements at this time.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842).” ASU 2016-02 requires a lessee to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for operating leases with terms over twelve months, initially measured at the present value of the lease payments, in its balance sheet. The standard also requires a lessee to recognize a single lease cost, calculated so that the cost of the lease is allocated over the lease term, on a generally straight-line basis. It also requires lessees to classify leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase of the leased asset by the lessee. This classification will determine whether the lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. ASU 2016-02 is effective for us in the first quarter of fiscal 2020. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating what impact the adoption of this update will have on our consolidated financial statements.
Cash Flow Statement
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments,” ASU 2016-15 provides guidance on the classification of certain cash receipts and payments in the statement of cash flows where diversity in practice exists. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning in our first quarter of fiscal 2019, and early adoption is permitted. ASU 2016-15 must be applied retrospectively to all periods presented but may be applied prospectively if retrospective application would be impracticable. We are currently evaluating what impact the adoption of this update will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash.” ASU 2016-18 requires that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Therefore, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning and ending balances shown on the statement of cash flows. The guidance is effective for us in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 and early adoption is permitted. ASU 2016-18 must be applied retrospectively to all periods presented. We are currently evaluating what impact the adoption of this update will have on our consolidated financial statements.
Intangibles-Goodwill and Other
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350), which simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill by removing “Step 2” of the two-step impairment test. The amendment requires an entity to perform its annual, or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. A goodwill impairment will be the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. The guidance is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2021. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. We are currently evaluating what impact the adoption of this update will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment awards require an entity to apply modification accounting under ASC 718. The guidance is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 and early adoption is permitted. We do not expect that the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Disclosure of accounting policy for basis of accounting, or basis of presentation, used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS).
No definition available.
Disclosure of accounting policy for fair value measurements of financial and non-financial assets, liabilities and instruments classified in shareholders' equity. Disclosures include, but are not limited to, how an entity that manages a group of financial assets and liabilities on the basis of its net exposure measures the fair value of those assets and liabilities.
No definition available.
Disclosure of accounting policy for the impairment and disposal of long-lived assets including goodwill and other intangible assets.
No definition available.
Disclosure of accounting policy pertaining to new accounting pronouncements that may impact the entity's financial reporting. Includes, but is not limited to, quantification of the expected or actual impact.
No definition available.
Disclosure of accounting policy for revenue recognition. If the entity has different policies for different types of revenue transactions, the policy for each material type of transaction is generally disclosed. If a sales transaction has multiple element arrangements (for example, delivery of multiple products, services or the rights to use assets) the disclosure may indicate the accounting policy for each unit of accounting as well as how units of accounting are determined and valued. The disclosure may encompass important judgment as to appropriateness of principles related to recognition of revenue. The disclosure also may indicate the entity's treatment of any unearned or deferred revenue that arises from the transaction.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef