Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Apr. 30, 2012
|Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Significant Accounting Policies
Our transactions frequently involve the sale of hardware, software, systems and services in multiple element arrangements. Revenues from sales of hardware, software and systems that do not require significant modification or customization of the underlying software are recognized when title and risk of loss has passed to the customer, there is evidence of an arrangement, fees are fixed or determinable and collection of the related receivable is considered probable. Customers are billed for installation, training, project management and at least one year of product maintenance and technical support at the time of the product sale. Revenue from these activities are deferred at the time of the product sale and recognized ratably over the period these services are performed. Revenue from ongoing product maintenance and technical support agreements are recognized ratably over the period of the related agreements. Revenue from software development contracts that include significant modification or customization, including software product enhancements, is recognized based on the percentage of completion contract accounting method using labor efforts expended in relation to estimates of total labor efforts to complete the contract. Accounting for contract amendments and customer change orders are included in contract accounting when executed. Revenue from shipping and handling costs and other out-of-pocket expenses reimbursed by customers are included in revenues and cost of revenues. Our share of intercompany profits associated with sales and services provided to affiliated companies are eliminated in consolidation in proportion to our equity ownership.
Under the software revenue recognition rules, revenue is allocated to the various elements based on Vendor Specific Objective Evidence (“VSOE”) of fair value. Under this method, the total arrangement value is allocated first to undelivered elements, based on their fair values, with the remainder being allocated to the delivered elements. Where fair value of undelivered service elements has not been established, the total arrangement value is recognized over the period during which the services are performed. The amounts allocated to undelivered elements, which may include project management, training, installation, maintenance and technical support and certain hardware and software components, are based upon the price charged when these elements are sold separately and unaccompanied by the other elements. The amount allocated to installation, training and project management revenue is based upon standard hourly billing rates and the estimated time required to complete the service. These services are not essential to the functionality of systems as these services do not alter the equipment’s capabilities, are available from other vendors and the systems are standard products. For multiple element arrangements that include software development with significant modification or customization and systems sales where vendor-specific objective evidence of the fair value does not exist for the undelivered elements of the arrangement (other than maintenance and technical support), percentage of completion accounting is applied for revenue recognition purposes to the entire arrangement with the exception of maintenance and technical support.
Under the revenue recognition rules for tangible products and related services as amended by ASU 2009-13, the fee from a multiple-deliverable arrangement is allocated to each of the deliverables based upon their relative selling prices as determined by a selling-price hierarchy. A deliverable in an arrangement qualifies as a separate unit of accounting if the delivered item has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis. A delivered item that does not qualify as a separate unit of accounting is combined with the other undelivered items in the arrangement and revenue is recognized for those combined deliverables as a single unit of accounting. The selling price used for each deliverable is based upon VSOE if available, third-party evidence (TPE) if VSOE is not available, and best estimate of selling price (BESP) if neither VSOE nor TPE are available. TPE is the price of our or any competitor’s largely interchangeable products or services in stand-alone sales to similarly situated customers. BESP is the price at which we would sell the deliverable if it were sold regularly on a stand-alone basis, considering market conditions and entity-specific factors.
The selling prices used in the relative selling price allocation method for certain of our services are based upon VSOE. The selling prices used in the relative selling price allocation method for third-party products from other vendors are based upon TPE. The selling prices used in the relative selling price allocation method for our hardware products, software, subscriptions, and customized services for which VSOE does not exist are based upon BESP. We do not believe TPE exists for these products and services because they are differentiated from competing products and services in terms of functionality and performance and there are no competing products or services that are largely interchangeable. Management establishes BESP with consideration for market conditions, such as the impact of competition and geographic considerations, and entity-specific factors, such as the cost of the product, discounts provided and profit objectives. We believe that BESP is reflective of reasonable pricing of that deliverable as if priced on a stand-alone basis.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef